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The language spoken on Long Island and in southern New England are all part of the Eastern Algonquian language family.1 The Unkechaug language, for example, shares a vowel pattern with such northern New England languages asAbenaki and Micmac.2

Early Recorded Algonquian Names

The Algonquian names for individuals and places were recorded by colonial scribes as they heard them pronounced by Native speakers. The spellings were phonetic. The scribe listened to the Native speaker and spelled the word out as he heard it. Thus the spelling was idiosyncratic, varying from scribe to scribe, and often even from one part of a given document to another. The scribes were little concerned with precise spellings for Algonquian names. Contemporary scholars, including Gaynell Stone and John Strong, have been guided by the spellings in William Wallace Tooker‘s classic, Indian Place Names on Long Island, for the sake of consistency.3


In 2017, Unkechaug Chief Harry Wallace, with Stephanie Fielding of Mohegan and Tina Tarrant of Shinnecock, launched  a language immersion class hosted by Stony Brook University.

The grammatical rules and dictionaries used in the class can be found here, , though the database and rules are being updated constantly.

Sites Translated

Below are historical, cultural, spiritual and archaeological sites that have Algonquian names. William Wallace Tooker was instrumental for associating location with the traditional site names based on deeds between colonists and Indians, but his given translations have been described as unreliable.

Based on the James Hammond Trumbell’s 1903 Natick Dictionary, which largely corresponds to the Shinnecock dialect of Algonquian, along with contemporary scholarship of Tina Tarrant (Shinnecock), Harry Wallace (Unkechaug) and Stephanie Fielding (Mohegan), new translations for ancestral sites without names have been given.

5I5A7603-300x200 Language Jeremy Dennis On This Site



Appaquogue / Apoquogue was derived from Dr. J. Hammond Trumbull's study of Indian Names in Connecticut. The name signifies "a place where flags grow."

The root means "to cover"; as in the Massachusetts, appuhquau, "he covers it," and abuhquosik, "a covering"; Narragansett abockquos, "a mat for covering the wigwam"; Chippewa apawei, "lodge mat."

Chippewa and Ottowa pukwi, "cat-tail flag," gives its name to Puckaway Lake, on the route from Green Bay to Wisconsin River.

The word appaquogue represents appaqui-auke and means "lodge-covering place," the components being appaqui, "lodge-covering" and "-auke, "place."[1. William Wallace Tooker, Indian Place Names on Long Island, 1911, pp. 15]

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Ashawagh may translate to "a place between." (the branches of the creek)

William Wallace Tooker compared Massachusett nashaue (John Eliot) and  "in the middle"; n'ashaw-auk, "land in the middle to approximate the translation. Tooker found that the same name occured in various forms throughout New England and on Long Island; Ashawog, Assawog, Nashaway, etc.[1. William Wallace Tooker, Indian Place Names 1911, pp. 107]

The Natives of that area named the creek "Copeces", which translates from Algonquin to "little place of shelter."[1. Soak Hides Nature PReserve: Management Plan, 2001 pp. 3]

5I5A6568-Edit-300x212 Language Jeremy Dennis On This Site

Ayeuonganit Wampum Ayimꝏup


Ayeuonganit Wampum Ayimꝏup translates to 'in this place wampum was made.'[1. Translation: Tina Tarrant, Shinnecock]

5I5A7096-Pano-300x132 Language Jeremy Dennis On This Site



Konkhunganik is the name of the southern part of Fort Pond, Montauk, East Hampton town, generally applied by historians to the whole part. First noted in the Indian deed of 1661, viz.: "All the piece or neck of land belonging to Montauk land western to a fresh pond in a beach, the name of the pond being Quanuntowunk on the north  and Konkhunganik on the south," (Hedge's Address, 1849).[1. William Wallace Tooker, Indian Place Names of Long Island, 1911 pp 84]

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Manhansack-aqua-quash-awamock translates to "island sheltered by islands," which was the Algonquian name used by the resident Manhanset Indians in the seventeenth century.[1. Duvall, 1952, pp. 9, John Charles Witek, Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of Connecticut, Nm 53, 1990, pp. 39]

S7A0447-Edit-300x226 Language Jeremy Dennis On This Site

Missi Kesukut


Missi Kesukut translates to 'at great sky,' referring to 'great sky' as an individual rather than the sky above us. Oral story describes great sky as spirit who guards this protected region of land.

Missi, mishe, misheu, missiyeu, (it is) great.[1. James Hammond, Natick Dictionary 1903, pp. 59]

From Ezek. 17, 3; 1. Chr. 16, 25; pl. Missiyeauash kut-onkquatunkanash - your rewards are great.

From Matt. 5, 12; nano missi, it is more and more great, 'it increaseth'

Ps. 74, 23; Job 10, 16; suppos. mohsag, when it is great, a great thing

Ex. 15, 7; Deut. 4, 32; Matt. 23, 17, 19; aneu mohsag, (that which is) more great, the greatest

Mat. 22, 36. [Narragansett mishe, missi. Abanaki: mese; nemeseghik8i't8n, je le fais plus grand. Cree: missow, it is large. Chippewa: mitcha, it is big, large. Deleware: m'cheu, big, large (it is), Zeisb.]

Kesuk, sky - the visible heavens, the sky.[1. James Hammond, Natick Dictionary 1903, pp. 323]

In the local Algonquian dialect, '-ut' is attached to words to create the locative at, on, or in.

5I5A7140-300x200 Language Jeremy Dennis On This Site



Montauk translates to "the fort country."

The Dutch called the Montauk Mirrachtauhacky[1. William Wallace Tooker, Indian Place Names of Long Island, 1911, pp. 135];

Mirrachtauhacky: Dutch Notation for Montauk. This form of spelling is found on record in the treaty of May 29, 1645; when Wittaneymen Sachem appeared before the Council of New Netherland, declaring to be impowered by his bretheren[sic], naming among other Weyrinteynich [Wiandance], Sachem of Mirrachtauhacky[1. col. Hist. N. Y., vol. xiv., p. 60]. De Kay cites: "Merautahacky an unknown locality on Long Island"[1. Tooker, Indian Names of L.I.]


The Montaukett had their own local dialect of Algonquian, but were understood by the Shinnecock, Unkechaug, and New England tribes.

On March 25, 1798, John Lyon Gardiner recorded Montaukett vocabulary from Sachem George Pharoah in a personal manuscript;

"March 25, 1798. A vocabulary of the Indian language spoken by the Montauk tribe. George Pharoah, aged 66, oldest man of that tribe and their chief gave me this specimen of their language. There are only about seven persons that can now speak this language and a few years more and it will be gone forever. It was spoken with little difference by all the Indians upon the East end of Long Island and perhaps the whole Island and the adjoining Islands. George says the Moheags of Connecticut speak the same language. George repeated these words several times and I write them as near as he pronounced as I can with the English alphabet."

The vocabulary list has been published in Gaynell Stone's Languages and Lore of the Long Island Indians, Vol IV


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The Algonquian word for this locality is "Niamuck," and its meaning is "the place between the fishing places," or "midway the fishing place."

This Algonquian word is first found in records of Southampton, vol ii, p. 27 viz: "Part of the Shinnecock Indians have made over all their land from Niamuck over to the old gutt westward unto Capt. Topping. "

Again, "Lying from a place called Niamuck or ye Canoe Place," (Indian deed, 1666).[1. H.D. Sleight, The Eighth Volume of Records of the Town of Southampton 1893 - 1927 Part Two, 1930 pp. 233]

5I5A5588-300x200 Language Jeremy Dennis On This Site



Nissaquogue translates to "the clay or mud country."[1. William Wallace Tooker, The Indian Place Names on Long Island, 1991, pp. 161]

Tooker found variations of the name; Tesequagg 1655; Nessaquock, 1665; NEsaquake, 1666; Nasaquack, 1666; Neesoquauk, 1663; Nesquauk, 1665; Nesoquack, 1671; Nassaquake, 1675; and modernly Nissequogue.

Lapnac-or-Noyak-Site5I5A8037-Edit-300x276 Language Jeremy Dennis On This Site



According to Tooker, the name Noyac may be translated to "a point or corner of land" from Massachusett Naiag.[1. William Wallace Tooker, Indian Place Names on Long Island, 1911, pp. 166] 

Variants are Noyack, 1686; Noiack, 1712. Modernly the word is spelt Noyac or Noyack.

Noyack corresponds to the Massachusetts Naiag, "point" or "corner." Trumbull[1. Notes to the Narr. Club ed. of R. William's Key] remarks:

"I may be permitted to suggest that nai, 'having corners,' and naiag or naiyag (as Eliot writes the word), 'a corner' or 'angle,' gave the name to many points of land on the sea-coast and rivers of New England, e.g., Nayatt Point in Barrington, Mass., Nayack in Southampton, L.I..."


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The site, known as the Wading River site in research, has been given the name Pahquahkossit based on Tooker's research[1. William Wallace Tooker, Indian Place Names on Long Island, 1911, p175]

Pahquahokossit: Wading River, Riverhead town. So recorded in 1687 (S. R., vol. i., p. 344).

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The indigenous name for the village and pond were not recorded, however the name Patuckquapaug has been appropriated from another text that describes a Round Lane in Connecticut:

Patuckquapaen and Tuscumcatick are noted in French's Gazetteer as names of record in what is now the town of Greenbush, Rensselaer County, without particular location. The first is in part Algonquian and in part Dutch. The original was, no doubt, Patuckquapaug, as in Greenwich, Ct., meaning "Round pond." The Dutch changed paug to paen descriptive of the land - low land - so we have, as it stands, "Round Land," "elevated hassocks of earth, roots," etc.[1. New York State Historical Association, 1906, pp. 62]


5I5A8452-Edit-300x134 Language Jeremy Dennis On This Site



Raconkamuck may have been the original name of the large pond of water situated in the three towns of Islip, Smithtown, and Brookhaven. It is still retained in the modern and more softened form of Ronkonkoma as applied to the lake and to a village in its vicinity.[1. Brooklyn Daily Eagle Almanac, 1895, pp. 56]

Historians have attempted to translate Raconkamuck from New England languages as a derivation wonkonk or wakonk-amuck, "the fence or boundary fishing place," because the fences were the "live hedges" running through the first, lopped by the Indians and whites on the boundary line of the towns of Brookhaven and Smithtown, all terminating at the pond - the fishing place.

5I5A9118-300x143 Language Jeremy Dennis On This Site

Shinnecock Indian Reservation


Shinnecock is a neck of land, and the name may translate to 'at the big neck.'

This name supports the idea that the element -uniikw- means 'neck of land.' Tooker noted the Dutch spelling of the name [Mochgonnekonck[1. Tooker, Indian Place Names of Long Island, 1911, pp. XXV, 136-8]] (in the Munsee language, spoken on Manhattan), which is a key to the interpretation.

Munsee */mxwuníikwunk/ ‘at the big -uniikw-’ would be in SNEA (Southern New England Algonquian) */mhshuniikwuk/ (with /m(u)hsh-/ ‘big’, which is what Shinnecock is, with loss (in the language) or omission (by English hearers) of the whispered “m-”. (written here schwa [technically /O/] with “u” for convenience, following the Munsee practical orthography.)[1. Ives Goddard, A Note on Shinnecock in Munsee, Email Corrispondance 2017]

5I5A9116-300x178 Language Jeremy Dennis On This Site

Unkechaug Indian Reservation


Unkechaug translates to people from beyond the hill.

The language spoken on Long Island and in southern New England are all part of the Eastern Algonquian language family.[1. Goddard 1978] The Unkechaug language, for example, shares a vowel pattern with such northern New England languages asAbenaki and Micmac.[1. Costa 2007, pp. 96]

Thomas Jefferson collected the most extensive surviving vocabulary taken directly from Unkechaug speakers during a visit in 1791.[1. Boyd 1982, 467-70] Three other fragments of the language were recorded from native Unkechaug informants.

Of Jefferson's 202 words, there were only eleven verbs, the rest being nouns and numbers. The nouns included names of animals, plants, parts of the human body, gender, natural phenomena, religion and geographic features.

In 1874, Henry Clinton visited the Unkechaug Reservation and spoke to an unidentified Unkechaug of fifty years old. He recorded;

oak fungus - punksole

snake - skuk

land turtle - metchik

thank you, sir - to bi ni

In 1903, Mesh (moses) Bradley, an Unkechaug elder, repeated the words for snake and turtle to archaeologist Mark Harrington as he was excavating a village site near the Shinnecock Reservation.[1. Levine and Bonvillain 1980, 22]

In 1932, a year before passing, Martha Maynes, an elderly Unkechaug woman, gave several words to Frank Siebert Jr, however Siebert published only one of these words;[1. Rudes 1997, pp. 5]

torep - sea turtle

In 2017, Unkechaug Chief Harry Wallace, with Stephanie Fielding of Mohegan and Tina Tarrant of Shinnecock, launched  a language immersion class hosted by Stony Brook University.

5I5A4888-Edit-300x99 Language Jeremy Dennis On This Site



Variations of Weeckatuck are Weeckatuck [better spelling as earlier spellings likely more accurate], used in 1706; Weckatuck, 1797 and Wickatuck, 1964.

This name is susceptible of two interpretations: either, weque-tugk, "end of the woods or trees"; or weque-tuk, "end of the cove or creek." There is no difference between "gk" and "k," but the first spelling wouldn't be correct grammatically. End of the cove or creek is likely to be the correct translation.

Reaching far afield in the Algonquian family, we could reasonable compare Ojibwe wiikwedong, locative of wiikwed 'bay,' which would have an expectd SNEA (Southern New England Algonquian) cognate wîhkwâtuk. Thus the meaning here would be 'in or at the cove,' assuming, on this evidence along that this word existed. We are also assuming that the 'ck' in the name should have been 'qu,' on the basis of a word we know elsewhere, but it could also mean something different.[1. Ives Goddard, email correspondence, 2017]

Both significations will apply to the locality, Weeckatuck spring being at the "end of the woods," from any direction of approach, from Noyack, Sag Harbor, or Bridgehampton. It is also the "head of the cove" from the same directions.

The first component, in either case, will be weque (in Massachusetts, uhquae), "end"; the -tugk of Wequetugk will correspond to Massachusetts m'h'tug (root, h'tug), "tree"; the -tuk of Wequetuk is -tuck, "tidal stream," "creek." [1. Tooker, W. W. (1962). The Indian place-names on Long Island and islands adjacent with their probable significations. Port Washington, NY: I.J. Friedman. pp 277]


5I5A6295-Pano-300x141 Language Jeremy Dennis On This Site

Whale's Fin


The word[1. James Hammond, Natick Dictionary, 1903, pp. 132] for whale in the local Algonquian dialect is pótab (variations pottab, pottap).

The fin of a fish is[1. James Hammond, Natick Dictionary, 1903, pp. 182] wapwékan.

  1. Goddard 1978
  2. Costa 2007, pp. 96
  3. John Strong, The Unkechaug Indians of Eastern Long Island – A History, 2011, pp. XV


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