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Archaic Period (3,500 – 1,300 B.C.)


The Archaic Period ( 3,500- 1,300 B.C. ) is identified by semi-nomadic village1 settlements that were usually located near tidal bays where they could harvest shellfish. In the winter months, some of the households probably moved into sheltered areas where trees or low hills protected them from the cold winter winds.

These villagers developed a fishing technology well suited to the shallow bays, small streams, and kettle whole ponds. They harvested sea sturgeon, rock fish, bluefish, flounder, shad, and striped bass. The bays abounded with oyster, bay scallops, periwinkles, channeled whelk, and hard and soft shelled clams, which provided a year round source of protein. Water fowl migrations brought flocks of birds to the bays on a seasonal round.

The forests behind the bays were full of many varieties of seeds, berries, nuts and game. Deer, of course, was a favorite source of protein, but archaeological sites indicate that the people also ate wild turkeys, raccoons, box turtles, woodchucks, and squirrels.

The material culture of the Paleo-Indian Period was expanded to include dug-out canoes, and tools and utensils from stone, bone and fiber. The women used wooden bowls, grinding stones, mats, bone drills, and awls in their daily domestic routine.2

Artifacts from this period have been found near Little Northwest Creek and Lake Montauk.

Food Gathering

The only food found from excavation was from natural gathering, there was no evidence of horticulture at te time.1


Early Archaic

During the Early Archaic (ca. up to about 6000 B.C.), sea levels were still much lower than today (Salwen in Truex 1982: 36). There appears to be a lack of Early Archaic evidence at all on Long Island. This may be due, at least in part, to the rise in sea levels burying former coastal sites during this period. Cultures represented at this time are the Laurentian. Diagnostic artifacts include Lamoka projectile points (Wyatt in Truex 1982: 70; Gwynne in Truex 1982: 195; Ritchie 1989: figure 1, 10; Lain 1988: 104; Salwen in Truex 1982: 36).4

Middle Archaic

Middle Archaic evidence (ca. 6000 to 4000 B.C.) is somewhat rare on Long Island (Wyatt in Truex 1982: 70; Gwynne in Truex 1982: 195). According to Fairbridge’s sea level charts, sea levels ranged from about 10 feet below present sea level (Salwen in Truex 1982: 36; Lavin 1988:104; Gwynne in Truex 1982:195). Some diagnostic artifacts from this general locale include Brewerton Corner Notched, Brewerton Side Notched, Vosburg, and Normanskill points (Ritchie 1989).4

Late Archaic Period

The Late Archaic (ca. 4000 to 1300 B.C.) is generally represented in the northeast by a thriving population, and proliferation of distinguishable regional adaptations and interareal exchange of raw materials (Gwynne 1982: 195; Lavin 1988: 104-108). Sea levels ranged from about 10 feet below to 10 feet above present (Salwen in Truex 1982:36). On Long Island, most Late Archaic sites are located along the coast and associated with shellfish collection. Cultures represented during this period include the Susquehanna. Some Squibnocket, Bare Island, and Popular Island points (Ritchie 1989: figure 1, 10, 131; Ritchie 1965: 48).4

Social Structure

The social structure was essentially egalitarian. The mobile lifeways of the Paleo-Indian Period evolved into a more sedentary pattern which exploited the local ecosystem on a seasonal round. The size and number of settlements on Long Island increased as the people took advantage of the rich flora and fauna resources produced by the gradually warming climate. The village bands were probably organized into extended family groups, which had kinship connections with bands on Long Island and southern New England.

The decision-making process in these small bands was democratic. Generally, a village headman was looked to for guidance, but only after he had demonstrated his capacity to lead and to have sound judgment. There were few hereditary social positions, although the son of a successful leader might have an advantage after the death of his father. Leadership was “situational” in nature. The man best able to deal effectively with a crisis or a particular challenge became the acknowledged leader for the duration of the situation: the best hunter led the hunting party; the best fisherman led the fishing expedition; the best orator represented the group in its diplomatic relations with other bands.2

Later and Current Colonial Imposed Social Structure

This rather amorphous political institution was later to pose problems with the Europeans when they attempted to impose a system of treaties and contracts on the Montauketts. These European legal concepts presumed a political hierarchy which did not exist among the Long Island bands. An Individual Native American might identify more strongly with a lineage or with a clan than with the particular “tribal” names (place names ) which were imposed by the Europeans in the decades after their arrival.2

Materials and Tools

paleo-and-archaic-artifacts-from-william-ritchie-ny-state-educational Archaic Period (3,500 - 1,300 B.C.) Jeremy Dennis On This Site

Artifacts Types of the Paleo-Indian Stage (a) and Archaic Stage (b to r). From William Ritchie NY State Educational Leaflet, pp. 9

During the Archaic period, long houses were covered with elm-bark.

The material culture included canoes, atlatl-spear throwers, steatite pots, folded bark containers, wooden and stone tools.1

Artifacts of the Archaic period show that the Native people lived around estuaries, harbors, streams and ponds of this beneficent land, as well as made stone tools, hunted, and camped at inland sites. So far no evidence of the Late Archaic Red Paint Burial Cult has been found in East Hampton.10


Marriage rules differ, but nearly all cultures require that spouses be selected from outside their family lineage or clan and often from outside the village as well. Generally, but not always, the woman will go to live in her husband’s household and become a member of that community.

The villagers on the east end of Long Island’s south fork, therefore, were part of a kinship network which sent marriage partners back and forth in the system, creating a complex, dynamic, and social interaction sphere.2


Evidence of religious ceremonialism has been found in a fascinating site at Lake Montauk; unfortunately, it was located by state archaeologist William Ritchie in the 1950s after it had been partially destroyed by pot hunters.

He discovered two human cremation burials embedded in red ocher and honored with a bird bone flute, shell beads, and eight spear points. The use of red ocher and cremation in funerary rites was well established in the Northeast during this period.

It is possible that the flute was a part of a shaman’s paraphernalia used in religious ceremonies. In many northern Indian communities, people who were believed to have special powers such as shamans were cremated.2

Late archaic archaeological evidence suggests a great interest in studying the cycles of the moon and position of the stars, as shell objects were found with astrological notations on them.1

Archaic Sites

5I5A9116-300x178 Archaic Period (3,500 - 1,300 B.C.) Jeremy Dennis On This Site

Unkechaug Indian Reservation

The Unkechaug Nation maintains a sovereign relationship with the State of New York, other Indian Nations in the United States and Canada and other foreign powers. The Unkechaug Nation is located on the Poospatuck (“where the waters meet”) Reservation in Long Island, NY.Under the provisions of colonial laws and later under the New York State Constitution (Article 12) the State of New York formally recognized the Unkechaug Nation of Indians in the 18th century. 1500 acres of land that had been long held by the Unkechaug and that continued from an original land agreement entered into with the King of England and the Unkechaug in the 17th century was set aside for the exclusive use of the Unkechaug. Today, that allotment has been stripped down to 55 acres; nevertheless, the affinity of the people to the land is as strong as in the past, if not even stronger today. The total population of tribal members, families, and extended relations is 450 of which approximately 250 reside on the Poospatuck Reservation. Housing density, and occupancy levels are unacceptable when measured against the rate of population growth and available land as well as the number of tribal members who want to return to their traditional homeland. The Unkechaug are faced with a rate of population growth greater than the national average and an increased demand for tribal services. Housing is an important priority but efforts to expand housing for tribal members are blocked by a lack of land. The Unkechaug are committed to increasing the land base in order to meet the needs of their members. [1.]

5I5A5588-300x200 Archaic Period (3,500 - 1,300 B.C.) Jeremy Dennis On This Site


The territory of this chieftaincy was adjoined by the Matinecocks on the west and extended eastward from the Nissequogue River to Stony Brook and south to the center of the Island. Apparently, there was a disagreement for a time between the Nissequogue and Matinecock Indians concerning their boundary and, as a consequence, they did not always enjoy friendly relations. They had extensive villages at Smithtown and at several other places near the shore within the bounds of their territory.

5I5A4646-WEB-Reeve-Farm-300x200 Archaic Period (3,500 - 1,300 B.C.) Jeremy Dennis On This Site

Reeve Farm Site

Four prehistoric human remains were found at Reeve Farm Site in 1961, sparking public and  archaeological attention. For decades following, local residents flocked to the farm in an attempt to uncover more remains and artifacts.The skeletal remains were purchased by the Bridgehampton Historical Society and displayed there for several years.

5I5A4804-300x200 Archaic Period (3,500 - 1,300 B.C.) Jeremy Dennis On This Site


Manhansack-aqua-quash-awamock, the traditional Algonquian name for Shelter Island by the Manhanset group who lived there from pre-historic time until the seventeenth century; is approximately 7907 acres in area. This island is unique for having the largest glacial erratic boulders on Long Island, resulting from the Wisconsonian glacier.[1. Englebright, 1982]

5I5A7096-Pano-300x132 Archaic Period (3,500 - 1,300 B.C.) Jeremy Dennis On This Site


Fort Pond in Montauk was once called Konkhunganik by the Montaukett Indians before and during the 1800s at its southern half and Quanuntowunk for its north shore.This site along the south eastern shore was occupied seasonally during the Late Woodland Period (1,200 - 350 years ago) as a recurring base camp for nomadic hunter-gatherers and their extended families.As early as 1661, the place name Konkhunganik was recorded from Montauketts during the creation of a land deed. The translation of Konkhunganik is currently unknown, but early 20th centruy anthropologist William Wallace Tooker believed the name translates to "at the boundary."

5I5A8452-Edit-300x134 Archaic Period (3,500 - 1,300 B.C.) Jeremy Dennis On This Site


Ronkonkoma was once a fresh water pond with a prehistoric village settlement.Many nineteenth and twentieth century legends are associated with this site.Today, the water of Lake Ronkonkoma has been deemed too toxic for swimming.

Manitou-Hill-5I5A9373-Pano-Edit-Edit-300x200 Archaic Period (3,500 - 1,300 B.C.) Jeremy Dennis On This Site

Manitou Hill

Manitou Hill is a sacred hill located on what is now known as Manetto Hill in Plainview, New York. An oral story, recorded by historian Gabriel Furman in 1874, describes a legend during a great drought. The Manitou instructs a sachem through a dream to stand at the top of Manetto Hill and fire an arrow into the air, and on the spot where the arrow lands, people should dig until they find water.The water spring that was found, called Mascopas, is now beneath a local high school athletic field.Manitou is known in traditional systems as the powerful and unseen power throughout the universe, being present during moments of the miraculous and mysterious.

Lapnac-or-Noyak-Site5I5A8037-Edit-300x276 Archaic Period (3,500 - 1,300 B.C.) Jeremy Dennis On This Site


Noyack was once a village site with evidence of dwellings, burials, cooking hearths, animal remains, and tools. Evidence of both Niantic culture and Sebonic culture are found in the area.Noyack takes its name from the long point or neck of land now known as Jessup's Neck, at one time called "Farrington's Point."[1. William Wallace Tooker, Indian Place Names on Long Island, 1911, pp. 166]

5I5A7487-2-300x200 Archaic Period (3,500 - 1,300 B.C.) Jeremy Dennis On This Site


Pahquahkossit is a winter camp site located in what is now known as Wading River. Based on prefishtail arrowheads found, the site is identified as an archaic period settlement, with evidence of occupation as early as 2595 BC.

  1. David Martine, Shinnecock History Timeline pp. 1
  2.  John Strong, from Transcript of Indians of Eastern Long Island Lecture, 2002
  3. David Martine, Shinnecock History Timeline pp. 1
  4. Alfred G. Cammisa, Ten Thousand Years of Land Use at Fort Pond: A Portage Haven Phase III Data Recovery Excavations of the Payne Site Montauk, 2008, pp.
  5. Alfred G. Cammisa, Ten Thousand Years of Land Use at Fort Pond: A Portage Haven Phase III Data Recovery Excavations of the Payne Site Montauk, 2008, pp.
  6. Alfred G. Cammisa, Ten Thousand Years of Land Use at Fort Pond: A Portage Haven Phase III Data Recovery Excavations of the Payne Site Montauk, 2008, pp.
  7.  John Strong, from Transcript of Indians of Eastern Long Island Lecture, 2002
  8.  John Strong, from Transcript of Indians of Eastern Long Island Lecture, 2002
  9. David Martine, Shinnecock History Timeline pp. 1
  10. Gaynell Stone, Transcript of Lecture on The Material History of the Montaukett, 1998, pp. 1
  11.  John Strong, from Transcript of Indians of Eastern Long Island Lecture, 2002
  12.  John Strong, from Transcript of Indians of Eastern Long Island Lecture, 2002
  13. David Martine, Shinnecock History Timeline pp. 1


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